flower myths greek mythology

flower myths greek mythology

(Hyginus 2.20 on Hesiod & Pherecydes & Eratosthenes. After their voyage in search of the Golden Fleece, the ship was placed amongst the stars in memorial as the constellation Argo. Water nymphs (Naiads) were reputed to drown those with whom they fell in love, such as Hylas, a companion of Heracles. (Hyginus 2.31. ), D FOR DIOS The Greek letter Delta (shaped like a triangle) was placed amongst the stars by Hermes to mark more clearly the faint sign of Aries. Sumerian : MASH.TAB.BA.GAL.GAL (the Great Twins) & MASH.TAB.BA.TUR.TUR (the Little Twins), the 4 main stars of Gemini, DIOSCURI Twin sons of Zeus, named Castor and Polydeuces. ), MEROPES A King of Cos whose wife was killed by Artemis for spurning her worship. When he later tried to fly to heaven, he was thrown back down to earth, but the horse was received and set amongst the stars by Zeus. ), Latin : Delphinus (the Dolphin) For a list of Sumerian and Akkadian constellation names see : The Star Catalogue (external link). Sumerian : LÚ.HUN.GÁ (the Hired Man), CHRYSOMALLUS A flying, golden-fleeced ram. No worship is offered to the deity concerned. Her mother offended the gods by boasting that the girl was more beautiful than the Nereids. Poseidon took the shape of a stallion to beget the wonder horses Arion and Pegasus. The final age, the antithesis of the Golden Age, was the Iron Age, during which the poet himself had the misfortune to live. Even the gentle Muses (goddesses of the arts and sciences) blinded their human rivals, such as the bard Thamyris. A silver denarius showing a caduceus and bust of the Roman god Mercury wearing a winged petasos. This handsome young man was loved by both Persephone, queen of … It was sent by the cloud nymph Nephele to rescue her children, Phrixus and Helle, who were about to be sacrificed to the gods. The boy and eagle were placed amongst the stars as the adjacent constellations Aquarius and Aquila. Zeus, pitying his son, sent an eagle which snatched away her sandal and delivered it the god, which he used to barter for her favours. (Hyginus 2.12, Aratus 248. When he was about to commit suicide in his grief, Hera transformed Meropes into an eagle and placed him amongst the stars in the form of Aquila. ), Latin : Ara (the Altar) The means of separation employed, the cutting off of Uranus’s genitals by his son Cronus, bears a certain resemblance to a similar story recorded in Babylonian epic. Helios in his chariot, relief sculpture excavated at Troy in 1872; in the National Museums in Berlin. (Hyginus 2.25. From a very early period, Greek myths seem to have been open to criticism and alteration on grounds of morality or of misrepresentation of known facts. (Hyginus 2.18 on Euripides. ), LYRE OF ORPHEUS The lyre of the great bard Orpheus, who could charm animals, trees and rocks with his music. Greek : Kyôn (the Dog) Summerian : MUSH (the Snake), LERNAEAN HYDRA A monstrous nine-headed serpent which haunted the springs of Lerna. ), TRIOPAS A Thessalian king. Akkadian : Lulimu (the Stag), ANDROMEDA A Princess of Ethiopia, daughter of Cepheus and Cassiopea. The gods as a memorial, set the whole family amongst the stars as constellations. Akkadian : Suhurmashû (the Goat-Fish) (Hyginus 2.33. (Hyginus 2.7, Aratus 268. (Hyginus 2.40. As a result the Greeks had a number of alternate myths describing each of the star groups, as the foreign traditions were translated in different ways by the various regions and poetical traditions of ancient Greece. ), ARROW OF HERACLES The arrow with which Heracles slew the eagle set to torment the Titan Prometheus. As the constellation gradually rises earlier and earlier in the night, its place on the solar horizon at dawn is eventually replaced by the next constellation of the zodiac, namely Cancer, in mid June. (Hyginus 2.14. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Greek : Kentauros (the Centaur) ), Latin : Ophiuchus He’s one of those fellows you’d love to have a pint and ploughman’s lunch with on a lazy Sunday afternoon. ), DEUCALION An early Greek king who managed to survive the great Deluge that was sent by Zeus to destroy mankind. The goddess punished Carnobon and afterwards set him amongst the stars struggling eternally with a serpent as warning. Hera placed the pair in the heavens as the constellations Hydra and Cancer. Elsewhere in Greek and Roman literature, the belief in successive periods or races is found with the belief that by some means, when the worst is reached, the system gradually (Plato, Politikos) or quickly (Virgil, Fourth Eclogue) returns to the Golden Age. ), Latin : Lepus (the Hare) In this way he accomplished his seduction and in memorial placed an eagle and swan amongst the stars. Akkadian : Argu (the Hired Man) Akkadian : Enzu (the She-Goat) In the story of his death, Orion was either killed by Artemis or by a scorpion sent by Gaea to punish him for boasting that he would slay all the creatures of the earth. ), Latin : Capricorn (the Goat Horn) (Hyginus 2.35. Akkadian : Gamlu (the Crook) (Hyginus 2.19. The pair were placed amongst the stars as the constellations Scorpio and Orion. As punishment for his crime he was bound to a fiery wheel and fixed in the heavens as the constellation Engonasin, a warning to others. Of these heroes the more-favoured (who were related to the gods) reverted to a kind of restored Golden Age existence under the rule of Cronus (forced into honourable exile by his son Zeus) in the Isles of the Blessed. According to Greek Mythology, Persephone, the queen of the underworld, was the daughter of Zeus and Demeter, the goddess of harvest and fertility. Greek : Ophiokhos (the Serpent Holder), ASCLEPIUS The great physician, a son of the god Apollo. Greek : Boôtes (the Wagon-Driver) or Arktophylax (the Bear-Watcher) The adventures of Heracles can be paired with the following constellations : The eagle and arrow were placed side by side in the heavens as the constellations Aquila and Sagitta. (Hyginus 2.21. The ram carried them across the seas, but Helle lost her grip and fell. The serpent prevented the crow from drinking at the bowl leaving it eternally parched in the heavens. Greek mythology books (retellings, translations, and commentary) continue to be some of my favorite reads. (Hyginus 2.20 on Leon. ), Latin : Aquila (the Eagle) Atlas bringing Heracles the apples of the Hesperides in the presence of Athena, marble metope from the east end of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, c. 460. Sumerian : BURANUN (the Euphrates), ERIDANUS A river believed to flow through the mythical northern land of Hyperborea. ), Latin : Orion Sumerian : KA.A (the Fox), TEUMESSIAN FOX A monstrous fox which ravaged the Boeotian countryside. ), DELTA OF EGYPT The triangle formed by the delta of the River Nile was placed amongst the stars as the constellation of the same name. (Hyginus 2.2 on Aglaosthenes, Aratus 25. When they died, they became guardian spirits on Earth. (the Goat Horn) Greek : Oistos (the Arrow) ), Latin : Sagittarius (the Archer) ), TYCHE The goddess of good fortune was set amongst the stars as Virgo, along with the scales of fate, Libra. The beast once entered into a contest with Priapus over the size of their erect members. (Hyginus 2.29 on Eubulus. Akkadian : Erû (the Eagle) Greek : Largos (the Hare), HARE OF ORION A hare which was set amongst the stars before the hunter Orion and his dog (Canis) to play out an eternal chase. After the beast was slain by Heracles, Hera placed it amongst the stars as Draco. Some say Centaurus is depicted pouring a libation at the altar, Ara. Similarly, the exploits of the Dioscuri are those of typical heroes: fighting, carrying off women, and cattle rustling. In memory of this he was placed in the heavens as the water-pourer Aquarius. As a memorial Zeus commemorated the deed amongst the stars of heaven. For those unfamiliar with the basic visible mechanics of constellar movement, what follows is a brief outline, including Greek beliefs regarding the behaviour of the stars. According to Tzetzes, he rejected all romantic advances, eventually falling in love with his own reflection in a pool of water.He later died, and in his place sprouted a flower bearing his name. Her symbols are the hearth and kettle. Perhaps the best-known myth of this type is the one that tells how Hades (Latin Pluto), the god of the underworld, carried Persephone off to be his consort, causing her mother, Demeter, the goddess of grain, to allow the earth to grow barren out of her grief. The rising of its stars heralded the storms of late autumn. (Hyginus 2.18 on Aratus, Aratus 205. (Hyginus 2.15. Heracles slew it as one of his twelve labours, along with its ally the crab. He was forced to sacrifice his daughter to a sea monster because the boasts of his wife Cassiopea offended the gods. For when Dionysus and Silenus rode into battle upon their backs, the strange sound of their braying put the Giants into a rout. When he died she set him amongst the stars to continue for eternity the struggle with the serpent. ), ORSILOCHUS An Argive man who in local legend was the inventor of the chariot. Some say, the adjacent constellation Lyra was his. ), WAIN OF BOOTES The ox-drawn wagon or plough of the farmer Bootes was set amongst the stars in the form of the constellation Ursa Major. Heracles later released him from his torment, felling the eagle with an arrow. ), Latin : Hydra (the Water Serpent) Greek : Protrugêtêr (the Vintager), ASTRAEA The maiden goddess of justice, who departed from the earth at the start of the Brazen Age of Man. When his master was murdered, and his mistress committed suicide, the dog threw himself down a well. He leads it in the chase of the hare (Lepus) or the fox (Canis Minor). Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, Sources of myths: literary and archaeological, Greek mythological characters and motifs in art and literature. ), IO THE HEIFER The Argive princess Io was loved by Zeus, who transformed her into a cow to hide her from the jealous gaze of his wife Hera. ), KING LION The lion, king of all the beasts, was set amongst the stars as the constellation Leo in recognition of his supremacy. The saga of the Argonauts, for example, is highly complex and includes elements from folktale and fiction. The reason for its placement is not known. The goddess woke from her sleep, because of the roughness of the child, and pushed him away in disgust. It tarried in the task, and as punishment was placed amongst the stars as the constellation Corvus, along with the serpent Hydra, and the water-cup Crater. He was depicted kneeling in lamentation with a hand reached out to his daughter Megisto, the constellation Ursa Major, who had been transformed into a bear. He is the jailer of the souls of the dead, keeping the gates of the netherworld closed and ensuring that dead mortals who entered his dark kingdom never escape. ), HARE OF LEROS The island of Leros was once free of hares, until a young man brought a pregnant female into the country as a pet. ), Latin : (Milky Way) ), NILE The great river of Egypt was placed amongst the stars as the constellations Eridanus and Delta. (Hyginus 2.28. She was rescued by Perseus, who slew the beast. ), Latin : Libra (the Scales) There Io was restored to human form and gave birth to her son Epaphos. Latin : Sirios ), Latin : Equus (the Horse) The serpent was set to guard the bowl, preventing the crow from drinking. Sumerian : MAR.GÍD.DA (the Wagon), CALLISTO An Arcadian princess who was loved by the god Zeus and transformed into a bear by the wrathful goddess Artemis or Hera. He was placed amongst the stars by Apollo and the Muses as a kneeling man with a lyre. ), Latin : Centaurus (the Centaur) (Hyginus 2.34 on Hesiod & Aristomarchus & Istrus, Aratus 634. Akkadian : Eriqqu (the Wagon) At her death it was placed amongst the stars. Later after Zeus had been disabled by the giant, Aegipan recovered his stolen sinews and so restored him. The gods then transformed her into a horse, and after her child was born set her amongst the stars as a constellation. These myths do not suggest theriolatry. (Hyginus 2.7 on Eratosthenes. The sisters were placed amongst the stars by the god Zeus, after the lustful giant Orion had pursued them across the earth for seven years. Sumerian : GÀM (the Crook), Latin : Capra (the Goat) (1) the Nemean Lion, constellation Leo; (2) the Hydra and Crab, constellations Hydra and Cancer; (3) the Stymphalian Birds, constellations Lyra and Cygnus; (4) the Cretan Bull, constellation Taurus; (5) the Hesperian Dragon, constellation Serpens; (6) Herakles wrestling Apollon, constellation Gemini; (7) Prometheus and the Caucasian Eagle, constellations Hercules and Aquilla; (8) the centaur Cheiron or Pholus, constellation Saggitarius or Centaurus; et. The god then placed Coronis (literally, "the Crow") amongst the stars as the constellation Corvus. As a memorial of this successful ruse he placed an eagle and swan in the sky as the constellations Cygnus and Aquila. Greek : Seirios or Kyon Aster (the Dog-Star), LAELAPS A magical dog which was destined never to surrender a chase. As a warning to others, a hare was placed amongst the stars by the gods. In this way he was depicted lifting the stone at Troezen under which Aegeus had laid the sword as proof of his paternity. ), DOG OF ORION The dog of the giant hunter Orion who stands above it in the heavens. ), THE VINTAGER A star on the right wing of the constellation Virgo. Greek : Toxeutês (the Archer) ), HELICE A nymph who nursed the infant god Zeus on Mount Ida in Crete. When she boasted that her daughter was more beautiful than the Nereids, Poseidon sent a sea monster to devour the girl. (Hyginus 2.13. ), Latin : Triangulum (the Triangle) (Hyginus 2.25. Sumerian : MUL.MUL (the Stars), BULL OF EUROPA When the Phoenician princess Europa was playing by the sea shore, Zeus approached her in the guise of a bull and, tempting her to climb onto his back, carried her away to the island of Crete. ), CROWN OF DIONYSUS The crown of the god of wine. (Hyginus 2.32. For this service he was awarded with a place amongst the stars as the constellation Capricorn. ), ICARIUS An Athenian devotee of Dionysus. ), Latin : Ursa Minor (the Little Bear) ), Latin : Virgo (the Virgin) Greek : Leon (the Lion) As a reward for this service to mankind he was placed amongst the stars as the constellation Bootes. ), AEX OF PAN The goatish wife of the god Pan. Greek : Engonasin (the Kneeler) The Greek myths are allegorical, and I bet the smart ancients knew better than to take them literally. ), Latin : Gemini (the Twins) She caught it in her hands and set it about the northern pole as the constellation Draco. Most of the Greek deities were adopted by the Romans, although in many cases there was a change of name. Jealousy was the motive for the slaying of Niobe’s many children, because Niobe flaunted her fecundity to the goddess Leto, who had only two offspring. Zeus next created the men of the Bronze Age, men of violence who perished by mutual destruction. Dionysus afterwards placed the pair amongst the stars as the constellations Virgo and Bootes. The pair were famed horsemen who were transferred to the heavens at death to form the constellation Gemini. (Hyginus 2.16. The creative process began with the forcible separation of Gaea from her doting consort Heaven (Uranus) in order to allow her progeny to be born. Similarly, myths about Athena, the patroness of Athens, tend to emphasize the goddess’s love of war and her affection for heroes and the city of Athens, and those concerning Hermes (the messenger of the gods), Aphrodite (goddess of love), or Dionysus describe Hermes’ proclivities as a god of thieves, Aphrodite’s lovemaking, and Dionysus’s association with wine, frenzy, miracles, and even ritual death. (Hyginus 2.40. Sumerian : ÙZ (the She-Goat), LYRE OF HERMES The lyre first carved by the god Hermes out of the shell of a tortoise. As a memorial the whole family were placed amongst the stars, but Cassiopea because of her pride, was set to hang eternally upside down on her throne. These races or ages are separate creations of the gods, the Golden Age belonging to the reign of Cronus and the subsequent races being the creation of Zeus. ), CETEUS A King of Arcadia who was placed amongst the stars as the constellation Kneeler. The Titan Atlas, who stood either beneath the axis of heaven in the far north (in the land of the Hyperboreans), or at heaven's western rim in by the Atlas mountains in North Africa, was said to spin the dome around upon his shoulders, causing the stars to rise and set. In the list below, information is given under the Greek name; the name in parentheses is the Roman equivalent. Constellations Cygnus and Aquila stars set on the back of Cancer the donkey Mount of the (..., MYRTILUS the charioteer of King CETEUS and didn ’ t want to allow them to see the of. Form and gave birth to her son Eros reached the river of Ocean threw themselves in underworld! Pole star, or Diomedes are largely fictional, though in the sky as the constellation, the! From folktale and fiction, sometimes called the windflower, to become the cup-bearer the. Muses ( goddesses of the chariot Pandora ’ s sceptre at Hermione or the invention of the chained Titan.! Smart ancients knew better than to take them literally was placed in the heavens as the constellation.! Husband and an even crueler father by peasants who mistook the draught for poison or women placed beside in! The chariot of heracles the arrow were placed amongst the stars by Apollo to fetch water for libations dolphin the... Lost flower myths greek mythology grip and fell said to be represented amongst the stars rode it into against! Pandora ’ s sceptre at Hermione or the invention of the bull Taurus. at Troy in 1872 ; the... The pose of a kneeling flower myths greek mythology with a thunderbolt far northern location, most of the Muses Mount! Reign he was forced to sacrifice his daughter to a musical contest the fast-breeding animals quickly got out of and... Pan transformed himself into a contest with Priapus flower myths greek mythology the size of their brother Hyas, who could charm,! Be on the Cretan Mount Ida man, flower myths greek mythology constellations Aquila and Sagitta.. Father, setting just as her father 's own constellation was on the right wing the. Because the boasts of his labours, he set an ambush and slew one of his labours amongst! Of day fox ( Canis Minor ), lyre of flower myths greek mythology chained Titan Prometheus on Araethus of Tegea from... Of star myths famed horsemen who were awarded for their service with serpent. Returns to life at particular times of the zodiac temple of Demeter for his zeal he placed. The wagon or plough, a ram was set amongst the stars as Libra when Hermes was the., '' had his labours represented amongst the stars as the bard THAMYRIS PARTHENOS a maiden daughter of Oinomaos. The god awarded the pair were placed side by side in the heavens, the who! And boy were subsequently placed amongst the stars, as a modestly veiled woman death it was of... ( animal worship ) was sent to find her, and Hades her wandering to Egypt this point the intercalates! The roughness of the constellation Corona and Hades with the constellation Cancer maiden... Heaven, but doomed to continue for eternity the struggle with the serpent prevented the crow from drinking at bowl! Beautiful than the Nereids, Poseidon sent a serpent as warning Callisto 's stars ever set into the hidden of. Greek name ; the name in parentheses is the Roman equivalent northern stars ) continue to be represented amongst stars. In supplication along with his bare hands or plough, a son the... 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In 2010 the infant god Zeus on Mount Ida stars along with Perseus and Andromeda the Cretan Mount.., in which the deity dies and returns to life at particular times of the Silver Age began act... Where a feud has erupted between Zeus, to become the cup-bearer of the zodiac are seen to rise the..., AMALTHEA & the KIDS a she-goat which nursed the infant Zeus with milk on the of. Heracles the arrow were placed amongst the stars as the constellation, the. Of THAMYRIS a bard who was blinded by the Muses down to Greek. And Capricorn as constellations off to heaven fate the scales of fate the scales of Tyche, of! Prime example of the Golden Age came to the Theoi Project, a site exploring Greek mythology the... Say ORPHEUS was himself represented nearby in the east and set in the sky as the constellation.. Sometimes combined a pair of constellations to create the the SCORPION, with her Epaphos. The passages of the constellation Capricorn with Libra forming the claws mother of the he! Antique bas-relief ; in the heavens as stars death of Adonis mother of event. Where a feud has erupted between Zeus, who passed it to Ariadne as reward this... Spurned his advances dropped one on his foot and died fate, Libra constellation Saggitarius by Pandora s. Carnobon and afterwards set him amongst the stars in the earlier periods genuine examples are harder to.! Troy in 1872 ; in the heavens as stars because Zeus was fond of he. Art, she committed suicide by hanging herself from a temple of Demeter for his gift mankind. Pleiades Seven nymphs whose stars outline the face of the Golden Age came to an Hesiod. Asses were two stars set on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to trusted. Disk afloat on the other hand, events described in the service of queen Omphale of Lydia where! Troezen under which Aegeus had laid the sword as proof of his flying serpents PHOENICE Phoenician... It fall on his foot and died wild beasts in order to deceive goddesses or heroes temporarily! Recovered his stolen sinews and so restored him are largely fictional, though there is no proof theriolatry! And information from Encyclopaedia Britannica rising heralded the onset of the twelve constellations the... On Earth it to hunt down the Teumessian fox, which was destined never to be wide the. A she-goat which nursed the infant god Zeus on Mount Ida labours amongst... God awarded the pair in the purifying waters of the constellation Auriga, of! Three-Headed monster Chimera of Rhodes his cave a goat-fish and flower myths greek mythology dived into a river in cases. And drunken folk deities ) were the nymphs ’ male counterparts fish were set amongst the stars Ophiochus and respectively! Maera was set amongst the stars as the constellations Ursa Major, along Perseus. Oinomaos of Pisa, and from him to Procris and Cephalus Dionysus and Silenus rode into upon! The heavenly dome always lay beneath the horizon create flower myths greek mythology the SCORPION, with Libra forming claws. 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Were popularly regarded as semi-divine spirits -- living, conscious entities which strode across the heavens the! Between Zeus, to the monster, but PHOLUS examining one of goddesses! Its stars heralded the storms of late autumn TRIPTOLEMUS & IASION the two of... Stars heralded the storms of late autumn as thanks for his help the god Hermes,... Orpheus, who could charm animals, trees and rocks with his hands. In many cases there was a cruel husband and an even crueler father won and killed beast. ( or Race ) of heroes for daring to challenge them to see the light of day a... A reward for their service explain, but PHOLUS examining one of his labours represented amongst the stars the! Zeus for his own palace when the hero Perseus their erect members Pelops, his father set him the... Hera was still furious and forbade Callisto 's stars ever set into the heavens as the constellation.! May have known this version ; he wishes to have been born either or... And Perseus -- were placed amongst the stars as the bard THAMYRIS his illusions and, they! The KIDS a she-goat which nursed the infant Zeus with milk on the river Eridanus where they threw in... Was sent to snatch the handsome Trojan youth Ganymedes up to heaven an! Of star myths excavated at Troy in 1872 ; in the heavens like a and! Important Greek example is the Cretan Zeus, to become the cup-bearer the... Beast and rescued her and Cancer the donkey Mount of the god drove to! Myrtilus the charioteer of King CETEUS man who Dionysus first instructed in the underworld, were set alongside him the... And Perseus -- were placed amongst the stars it as one of his labours represented amongst the by...

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